What Causes Lower Abdominal Pain In Females (pelvic pain)

What causes lower abdominal pain in females (pelvic pain)?.

Lower abdominal pain is called pelvic pain. The lower abdomen is area between the belly bottom and groin.

There are lots of reasons for lower abdominal pain in females. Nearly all females experience lower abdominal pain in their lives. But this pain is not a sign of a serious condition because in most cases, it is self-treating. Occasionally it needs some medical examinations.

It is difficult to find the exact cause of lower abdominal pain because it contains ovaries, rectum, urinary bladder, and fallopian tubes. For this reason, medical tests are required for the identification of a meaningful cause.

Generally, the cause of lower abdominal pain is determined by its physical examination and characteristics.

In this article, we discuss 13 reasons that cause lower abdominal pain in females.

What causes lower abdominal pain in females (pelvic pain)

The following are the common prevalent causes of lower abdominal pain in females.

Menstrual cramps or Pain

Period pain is the main cause of lower abdominal pain in females. Menstrual cramping usually starts before a woman starts her period. These contractions of the uterus expel the lining. These contractions of the uterus lead to lower abdominal pain in females.

Pain is the common symptom of all menstrual disorders according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

To relieve the pain use a hot pad and over-the-counter drugs. In case of severe pain talk to your doctor. He/she will recommend other analgesic drugs.


Cystitis means inflammation of the urinary bladder due to bacterial infection. Cystitis happens when bacteria of the vagina, rectal, or skin enter the urethra and cause urinary bladder inflammation.

Urinary bladder inflammation causes pain. But this type of pain is treated without any medications.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infection is a generalized infection that occurs anywhere in the urinary system. Usually, UTI is treated without any medication but if you experiencing pain and fever then take a short course of antibiotics according to the advice of doctor.

Urinary tract infection is the second most cause of lower abdominal pain in females


You may feel pain in the pelvic region about 10-14 days before your period. Ovulation causes cramps in the lower abdomen.

During ovulation, ovaries release egg along with some fluid. The egg and fluid move to the uterus through fallopian tube. The fluid secreted by ovary spread to abdominal cavity and pelvis, which causes inflammation and pain.

This pain lasts for minutes or hours. You will feel this pain on that side of the body on which the ovary releases the egg. For instance, if the left ovary released an egg, you will experience pain in the lift side and vice versa.

This pain is temporary and required no medications. If it becomes severe then consult a doctor.

Muscular pain

The smooth muscles sometimes start spasm, leading to pain. The cause of this pain is not known. Over-the-counter drugs such as NSAIDs or Spasmolytic are available that treat muscular pain.


Pregnancy is also one of the leading factor of lower abdominal pain. During pregnancy the size of the uterus is increasing and puts pressure on the other organs in the abdomen, leading to pain.

Moreover, during pregnancy, various kinds of hormones are secreted that can cause spasms in the muscle which lead to pain.

learn more about lower abdominal pain in pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy means a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus. Usually, ectopic pregnancy happens in fallopian tubes.

Ectopic pregnancy is a serious medical condition and it causes severe lower abdominal pain. This condition needs immediate medical care because it will become a life threatening condition.  

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Sexually transmitted infections are one of the causes of pelvic or lower abdominal pain. Sexually transmitted infections happen in those people who are sexually active.

The symptoms of STIs include:

  • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Bleeding between the periods
  • Difficulty in urination
  • Changes in vaginal discharge
  • Fever
  • Itchy vagina
  • Blisters and sores around genitals or anus
  • Warts around anus or genitals
  • Unusual bleeding from vagina
  • Rushes
  • Skin growth or lumps around the genitals or anus

A woman who experiences the symptoms of STIs should consult a doctor immediately. Upon diagnosis doctor usually prescribes antibiotics.


Endometriosis is a pathological condition in which the lining of uterus grows outside the uterus causing pain and infertility.

During periods, the tissue outside the uterus responds to hormonal changes, which causes bleeding and pelvic pain.

The severity of pain in endometriosis varies from person to person. So doctors prescribe medicine based on the severity of pain and symptoms.

Urinary stones

Stones in the urinary tract cause pain in the pelvic and lower back. Stones in the urinary tract consist of salts and minerals such as calcium.

These salts and minerals aggregate to form a crystal in the kidney and urinary bladder that cause pain in the lower back and pelvic region.

Sometimes these stones pass out from the body without treatment but occasionally they need medical treatment.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sac that forms in the ovary or on its surface. These cysts have little or no effect on the body.

Ovarian cysts are common and noncancerous. This cyst moves out from the body without treatment. Sometimes these cysts burst and cause some complications including pelvic pain.

To protect your health do a regular pelvic examination.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

It is a long term digestive system disorder that causes pelvic pain, diarrhea, bloating and constipation.

There is no treatment for IBS but it gets better with time. In IBS doctors manage only symptoms.


Inflammation in the appendix is called appendicitis. It is a small organ in the lower right of the abdomen.

Appendicitis causes sharp pain in the lower abdomen along with other symptoms such as fever and vomiting.

Seek immediate medical care if you have the symptoms of appendicitis. The only treatment for appendicitis is its surgical removal.


Lower abdominal pain is common in all females. Lower abdominal pain is called pelvic pain. The lower abdomen is area between the belly bottom and groin.

There are lots of reasons for lower abdominal pain in females including menstrual cramps, cystitis, pregnancy, ovarian cysts, STIs, ectopic pregnancy, urinary stones, and endometriosis. 


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